Sunday, January 17, 2021

The Space Garbage Man Cometh

Human beings are messy. They tend to leave Rubbish behind them wherever they go, and to expect someone else to clear that Rubbish up. This is true even in Outer Space. The Problem of Orbiting Debris, and the concomitant risk of it Colliding with and Damaging an Active and Expensive Satellite, has been around for a while. But it is rapidly getting Worse. There may now be as many as 1 Million bits of Debris measuring 1cm or more across in Orbit. Of Larger Objects, more than 20,000 are being actively Tracked from Earth. And, according to Daniel Oltrogge, an Expert who advises the Space Data Association, an Industry Body, on such matters, the past Three years have seen a Doubling of the number of times that Bits of Junk have almost hit Operating Satellites.

In the short term, Satellite Owners can, literally, dodge the problem, as long as their Craft are fitted with appropriate Thrusters. ltrogge’s day job is to Arrange for that to happen, for he also works for AGI, an American Firm that Develops, among other things, Software which helps Satellite Operators sidestep such Collisions. In the Longer term, however, more Radical action will be needed.

Part of the Problem is the Growing Number of Launches taking place. On January 17th, for example, Virgin Orbit, a New entrant to the Market that is part of Richard Branson’s Virgin Group, will Launch Ten Satellites into Orbit using a Rocket released from a modified Boeing 747-400. Another part, though, is that, every year, a Dozen or so Sizeable Chunks of Debris orbiting Earth break up. Around Half of these Explosions are caused by things like the Ignition of Leftover Rocket Fuel and the Bursting of Old Batteries, and Pressurised Tanks. The rest are the result of Collisions.

The Upshot is a Chain Reaction of Impacts in Orbit. These are Acelerating only slowly, so there is still time to Curtail it. But if Action is Not taken soon, Insurance Premiums for Satellites will rise, Spending on Tracking and Collision-Avoidance Systems will have to Increase, and certain Orbits eventually Risk becoming Unusable.

Stopping this Orbital-Junk-Generating chain reaction means casting part of the Superfluous Tonnage in Space down into Earth’s Atmosphere, where the Frictional Heat of Re-Entry will Burn it up. A Clean Sweep is Not necessary. Removing a Handful of the Larger Derelicts every year would be enough. Exactly how many is Debated. Yamamoto Toru of Japan’s Space Agency, JAXA, estimates somewhere between Three and Seven. Ted Muelhaupt of America’s Aerospace Corporation, a Taxpayer-Funded Research Centre, reckons a Dozen. But even that sounds Doable. Except that No one knows yet how to do it.

People are, though, Planning to Practice. One such Rehearsal, scheduled for Lift-Off in March, is led by Astroscale, a Firm based in Tokyo. Astroscale proposes to Launch, from Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan, a Mission dubbed ELSA-D. This consists of a 175kg Mother Ship called a Servicer, and a 17kg Pod fitted with a Ferrous Docking Plate that will act as a Dummy Target. If all goes well, the Servicer will Eject and Recover the Pod Three times, in successively Harder Trial runs, before Thrusters push the whole Kaboodle to Fiery Doom in the Atmosphere below.

In the First Test, the Servicer will use Springs to Push the Pod Out and then, once it is Ten metres away, will approach it again, Lock onto the Docking Plate using an Arm fitted with a Magnetic Head, Retract the Arm and Pull it back to the Servicer. For the Second Test, it will Push the Pod at least 100 metres away before its Starts approaching it. A Reaction Wheel and a set of Magnetic Torque-Generators will then put thePpod into a Tumble involving all Three Axes of Motion, at a Speed of Half a Degree a second.

This is, as it were, an important twist, for Chunks of Orbiting Debris typically Spin in this fashion. A Real Deorbiting Mission will therefore have to Deal with such Spinning Objects. Markings on the Pod will help the Servicer work out its Prey’s Motion. Using Eight Thrusters, it will Maneuver itself until those Markings appear, to its Sensors, to be Stationary. This will mean its Motion exactly Matches that of the Tumbling Pod, and that the Magnetic Head can therefore be Extended to do its job.

For the Third Capture Test, the Servicer will First use its Thrusters to Back Off several kilometres from the Pod, putting the Pod beyond Sensor Range. Then it will Search for it, as would need to be the case if it were Hunting for a Real Derelict Spacecraft.

For All the Technological prowess these Tests will require, however, Real Derelicts pose a Greater Challenge than Dummy ones. For one thing, unlike Astroscale’s Pod, few Spacecraft have been Designed to Expedite their own Removal. Also, those Objects which most need Removing are Dangerously Heavy. A Spacecraft that Miscalculates while attempting to Capture a Massive Piece of Tumbling Debris could be Smashed to smithereens, thus Contributing to the Problem it was supposed to be solving.

The Commercial Removal of Debris Demonstration, a Plan by JAXA to Deorbit a Discarded Japanese Rocket Stage, highlights these Difficulties. Before a Spacecraft can be Designed to Capture whichever Derelict Japan’s Space Agency selects as the Experiment’s Target, a Reconnaissance Mission must First be Launched to Study it up Close. JAXA has Awarded the Contract for this part of the Demonstration to Astroscale, which Plans to do it using a Craft, called ADRAS-J, that will be Launched in Two years’ time. To Measure the Motion and Fatures of a Rocket Part which might Weigh Tonnes, ADRAS-J will Approach within mere Metres. Once it Collects the necessary Data, another Spacecraft can be Designed to Seize the Junk on a subsequent Mission.

In this case, Magnets will Not be used to Grapple with the Target, for Normal Spacecraft have No Iron in them. Using a Harpoon to Capture such an Object might be Feasible, though. In a Test conducted in 2019, Airbus, a European Aerospace Giant, successfully Shot a Harpoon from a Satellite into a Piece of Panelling 1½ metres away. However, that Panelling was Attached to a Boom extending from the Satellite, so this was but the most Preliminary of Experiments. Also, a Harpoon can Miss, Ricochet, or Worse, Break Off Parts of the Target which will then Contribute yet more Objects to the Celestial Junkyard.

Another Option is to Shoot a Net. Airbus Tested this idea in 2018. That Test successfully enveloped a Small “cubesat” which had been Pushed Seven metres away from the Net-Throwing Craft, though this Net was Not Tethered to the Mother Ship, which would therefore have been Unable to Deorbit its Target. Tethers are hard to Manage in the Weightlessness of Orbit, which is why Airbus chose Not to use One in this Preliminary Net-Tossing Experiment. That leads some to doubt whether such ideas are a sensible idea at all. Chris Blackerby, Astroscale’s Chief Operations Pfficer, expects the Best approach will be to Design Robotic Arms to Clench the Target Vehicle’s Fairing-Connector Ring, the Shallow Cylinder that Links a Rocket’s Upper Stage to the Covering of its Payload, if this proves still to be Intact.

If all that works, JAXA’s Debris-Removal Demonstration will face a Final Challenge. This is to Execute a Safe Re-Entry. Many pieces of the Re-entering Complex of Captor and Captive will Survive Frictional Melting and Slam, at Speed, into Earth’s Surface. Were Re-Entry to occur at a Random Spot, the probability of a Human Casualty would now Exceed the Threshold of One in 10,000 that Nasa set as an Acceptable Level of Risk in 1995, and which was adopted by Japan and other Countries thereafter. The Complex will therefore need to be put into a Steep Descent aimed at an Uninhabited Area, probably part of the Pacific Ocean.

As to the First Clearance of Actual Orbiting Debris, that is likely to be a European Affair, for, in 2019, the European Space Agency awarded a Contract to ClearSpace, a Swiss Firm, to grab a 100kg Piece of Rocket Debris that has been Looping Earth since 2013. This Mission is scheduled for 2025. ClearSpace Plans to use a Capture Craft fitted with Four Robotic Arms. Unlike Harpoons or Net tosses, this Strategy permits Repeated attempts at Recovery to be made. Even so, Luc Piguet, ClearSpace’s Boss, expects his Spacecraft will spend at least Nine Months in Trials near the Target before it Secures the Derelict and Decelerates sufficiently to Descend.

An Era of serious Cleanup in Space is still some way off. Besides the Technological Obstacles, removing Junk will be Expensive. The Controlled Re-Entry of an Object requires Fuel, Big Thrusters, and Close Attention from a Ground Controller. These things can tack Millions of Dollars, perhaps more than $20 Million, onto a Deorbiting Operation’s Price Tag. ClearSpace’s Mission, for example, may Cost as much as $122 Million, though Piguet hopes Subsequent Jobs will be Cheaper.

Cheaper or not, the question remains, “who will pay”? The Littering of Space is a Textbook example of the Tragedy of the Commons, in which it is in Everyone’s interest for a Problem to be Solved, but No One’s to be the Lone Individual who takes on the Burden of Solving it.

The Solutions to Tragedies of the Commons usually have to be Imposed from Outside, often by Governments. One Idea is a Special Launch Tax, with the Proceeds hypothecated to Pay for Cleanup Operations. A more Creative Proposal is “a bottle-deposit system”. Spacefarers would Pay a dDposit for each Craft they Lofted into Orbit. If Owners then Failed to Deorbit their Equipment after its Mission was over, the Job could be Done by Someone else, who would Collect the Deposit instead. That would Encourage People to Build Deorbiting Capabilities into Satellites from the start, so the Celestial Garbage Operation would eventually No Longer be needed. A Third Suggestion, proposed by Akhil Rao of Middlebury College, in Vermont, is to Charge Rent, known as Orbital-Use Fees, for every Commercial Satellite in Orbit. That would have the Same Effect.

Support for such Schemes is Growing, though they would Require both International Agreements between countries with Launch Facilities and an Enforcement Mechanism to Stop Outsiders with Laxer Rules from Undercutting the Arrangement.

There is also One other point. As Jean-Daniel Testé, once Head of the French Air Force’s Joint Space Command, notes, Equipment Developed for Orbital Cleanup could be used to Disable SDatellites, too. Testé says Advances in Orbital Robotics made by France’s Adversaries, not to mention the Lack of any International “space gendarmerie”, are Leading his Country to Plan Spacecraft to Defend its Military and Intelligence Satellites.

Testé is coy on Specifics. But France’s Armed-Forces Minister, Florence Parly, has Revealed more about her Country’s Plans than have her Equivalents in other Powers, America included. She foresees France Launching Special “lookout” and “active defence” spacecraft, to Protect its Assets in Space. The latter are likely to be Armed with Powerful Lasers. As Parly has put it, “we intend to blind” Threatening Spacecraft.

I envision a Large Space Dumptruck, that can Scoop-up the Debris and return it to Earch, to be Recycled.

NYC Wins When Everyone Can Vote! Michael H. Drucker

1993 Agreement Trump Signed Prevents Using Mar-a-Lago as His Residence

In 1993, the City of Palm Beach granted Trump a Permit allowing him to Convert Mar-a-Lago from Residential use into use as a Private Club. As part of that Process, Trump Signed an Agreement which now prevents him from using Mar-a-Lago as his Residence.

Since he was in Financial Trouble and the Cost of Upkeep was high, he floated several ideas to the City about how the Property might be developed. Eventually both Trump and the City agreed on the idea of Converting the property from Residential use to use as a Private Club.

Here is the chronology: March 1993 - Application for a Special Exemption Use and Preservation Plan; April 1993 - Addendum to the application; November 1993 - Use Agreement. The Key Paperwork related to this Conversion in the way the Property would be used.

- Trump agrees to convey Mar-a-Lago to the club which is a Corporate entity with him as Majority Owner. Trump No longer is the Owner of Mar-a-Lago. There is Nothing in the Paper Trail that gives Trump any Special Rights that are Different than the Rights enjoyed by other Members of the Club.

- Trump agrees that "[a]ny usages not specifically set forth in the Plan ... are excluded ... except upon new application to and approval by the Town Council." Since the Plan makes No Reference to any Full Time Residential use, that Type of Use is Not currently Allowed.

- “The guest suites as set forth in the Plan shall be limited to the use of Club members, shall be limited to ten (10) in number, shall not be open to the public, and shall not be advertised. No kitchen or other food preparation facilities shall be allowed in any of the guest suites.” There are 10 Guest Suites. In Legal Documents the word “shall” is considered Mandatory. If Trump is Not a “member” of the Club then he is Not entitled to use any of the 10 Guest Suites, Golf Course, or any other Facility of this Private Club.

- “The use of guest suites shall be limited to a maximum of three (3) non-consecutive seven (7) day periods by any one member during the year. The operations of the Club shall not result in a nuisance to any of the neighboring properties.” The Limitation on how many Days a Member can use the Guest Suites each year certainly seems clear.

- Trump Signed the Use Agreement on Behalf of Himself and on Behalf of the Club.

The March 1993 Application and April 1993 Addendum are in a Single Document. The intent of the Addendum is to respond to Comments made in response to the Application.

- “All modifications are restrictive of the Application For Special Exemption No. 11-93. If anything in the Addendum is inconsistent with other submitted materials, Addendum provisions shall control.”

- In part of the Traffic Analysis which is included in the Addendum. it describes the Original Owner’s use including the Owner’s Suite and “9 guest quarters”. Trump’s Application Paperwork consistently refers to 10 Guest Suites. Trump’s Paperwork never Indicates any Intention to Treat the Original Owner’s Suite any differently than the other 9 Suites.

- The Addendum includes the Site Plan Review which says: “The ten guest rooms have no kitchens and therefore are not dwelling units under the interpretation by which the three dwelling units were established.”

- The use of the Building and Grounds is Recreational. Trump’s 1993 Application to Convert to a Private Club never made any Indication that part of the Property might be used as a Primary Residence for anyone.

“The Club will be a corporate entity, The Mar-a-Lago Club, inc., and will own the real property and its improvements.”

“All statements in this text and the special exemption application constitute representations binding upon the Club and enforceable by the Town of Palm Beach Code Enforcement Officer and Board.” It includes a Statement that if Trump was to make it his Residence, it would No Longer be a Club.

Will the City Officials Enforce the Permit or welcome Trump?

Trump owns and Rents Three Properties in the area: 3,000sgft, 6,000sgft, and 10,000sgft Homes.

A Limited Liability Company (LLC) managed by Eric Trump and Donald Trump Jr., has just paid $18.5 Million for a Mansion in Palm Beach opposite the Mar-a-Lago Resort. The Property was owned by their Aunt, Maryanne Trump Barry, Property Records show. A Deed shows the LLC was the Buyer of the Eight-Bedroom Home. Eric Trump is listed as the President of the Company, and his Brother Donald Trump Jr. the Vice President. So they could rent it to their father.

NYC Wins When Everyone Can Vote! Michael H. Drucker

Fiji Wins Presidency of UN Rights Body

Fiji, the Favourite of Western Nations, Won the Presidency of the U.N. Human Rights Council, on Friday, beating Bahrain and Uzbekistan in a Secret Ballot that resolved a tense Deadlock over the selection.

The Vote was called after an Impasse that meant the Council, the only Intergovernmental Global Body to Promote and Protect Human Rights Worldwide, began Meetings this week Leaderless for the First time in its 15-year history.

The Presidency rotates Geographically with each Region typically making a Selection by Consensus but Members of the Asia Pacific Group could Not agree, forcing the First-ever Secret Ballot in the Council.

Fiji's Nazahat Shameen Khan, a British-educated Former High Court Judge, won with 29 Votes versus 14 for Bahrain and 4 for Uzbekistan, Vice-President Ali Ibn Abi Talib Abdelrahman Mahmoud told a nearly-empty U.N. Chamber where Delegates Voted one-by-one due to COVID-19 Measures.

The Deadlock over the presidency came at the start of a year that is widely expected to see the United States Rejoin after Trump quit the Forum in 2018, and with a Review of the Council's Activities expected to begin.

Observers and Diplomats saw Fiji's Rivals as being backed by Russia, China, and Saudi Arabia, although a Chinese Diplomat said he would be happy for any Candidate to Win.

China's Ambassador to the U.N. in Geneva, Chen Xu, Congratulated Fiji in a Tweet on Friday and pledged Support.

The 47-Member Council does Not make Legally Binding Decisions but it can Authorise Probes into alleged Rights Violations by Mandating International Fact-Finding missions.

Marc Limon of the Universal Rights Group think-tank, welcomed Khan's selection. "It is important for the Council to have a country like Fiji that has a positive record on human rights and a good story to tell," he said, alluding to the Collapse of the Former U.N. Rights Body after Muammar Gaddafi's Libya led it.

A Diplomat said he expected Debates to be more Intense this year, given that Russia and China return to the Council after periods off it. "I expect a lot of heated debates and the potential for acrimony," he said, saying China's actions in Hong Kong and Xinjiang could be Flashpoints.

Biden has promised to emphasize Human Rights in his Foreign Policy.

But would he make an effort to rally other Governments to Condem China's Civil Rights Violations?

NYC Wins When Everyone Can Vote! Michael H. Drucker

Saturday, January 16, 2021

Biden Seeks Quick Start With Executive Actions and Aggressive Legislation

Biden inheriting a collection of Crises unlike any in Generations, plans to open his Administration with Dozens of Executive Directives on top of Expansive Legislative Proposals in a 10-day blitz meant to signal a Turning Point for a Nation reeling from Disease, Economic Turmoil, Racial Strife and now the Aftermath of the Assault on the Capitol.

Biden’s Team has Developed a raft of Decrees that he can issue on his own Authority after the Inauguration to begin Reversing some of Trump’s most hotly Disputed Policies. Advisers hope the flurry of action, without waiting for Congress, will establish a sense of Momentum for the New President even as the Senate puts his Predecessor on Trial.

On his First day in Office, Biden intends a flurry of Executive Orders that will be partly Substantive and partly Symbolic. They include:

- Rescinding the Travel Ban on several predominantly Muslim Countries.

- Rjoining the Paris Climate Change Accord.

- Extending Pandemic-related Limits on Evictions and Student Loan Payments.

- Issuing a Mask Mandate for Federal Property, and Interstate Travel.

- Ordering Agencies to figure out how to Reunite Children separated from Families after Crossing the Border.

The Blueprint of Executive Action comes after Biden announced that he will push Congress to pass a $1.9 Trillion Package of Economic Stimulus and Pandemic Relief, signaling a willingness to be Aggressive on Policy Issues.

The incoming Administration has promised to Vaccinate 100 Million Americans for the Coronavirus within its first 100 days. On Biden’s Second day in Office, he will Sign Executive Actions related to the Coronavirus Pandemic aimed at helping Schools and Businesses to Reopen safely, Expand Testing, Protect Workers, and Clarify Public Health Standards. On his Third day, he will Direct his Cabinet Agencies to “take immediate action to deliver economic relief to working families,”.

The subsequent Seven days will include more Executive Actions and Directives to his Cabinet to expand “Buy America” Provisions, “support communities of color and other underserved communities,” address Climate Change, and start an effort to Reunite Families separated at the Border.

NYC Wins When Everyone Can Vote! Michael H. Drucker

DOJ IG Confirms Who Signed Off on Family Separations

The Justice Department (DOJ) Office of Inspector General (IG) has Released the Final Version of a Report points to Top DOJ Officials, including former Attorney General, Jeff Sessions and his Deputy, Rod Rosenstein, as “a driving force” in the Trump Administration’s Decision to carry out the State-Sanctioned Kidnapping of Thousands of Children at the Southern Border.

The Final Report confirms Sessions, Rosenstein, and DOJ Officials carried out the Inhumane “zero tolerance” Policy with No Mercy. “Our review found that the Department’s single-minded focus on increasing prosecutions came at the expense of careful and appropriate consideration of the impact that prosecution of family unit adults and family separations would have on children traveling with them and the government’s ability to later reunite the children with their parents,” Department of Homeland Security (DHS) IG said.

The Final Report confirms Sessions in particular as an Evil, Grinning participant in carrying out this Human and Children’s Rights Atrocity. As detailed in the Draft Version, when U.S. Attorneys expressed Concern about the Ages of Children being taken from Parents and that some Parents were not being immediately Reunited with their Kids after being Prosecuted and Receiving Time-Served Sentences, Sessions instead encouraged continued Separations.

“The notes further recorded Sessions telling the U.S. Attorneys, ‘we need to take away children; if care about kids, don’t bring them in; won’t give amnesty to kids; to people with kids’ [strikethrough in original],” the Watchdog Report said. Seeking Asylum for those who Care about Pesky things called Facts, is Legal Immigration, by the way.

But others were also Eager to push full steam ahead. The Report said that following Former DHS Sec. Kirstjen Nielsen’s Issuance of the May 2018 Memo authorizing Family Separation, Border Agents were told to use Spreadsheets to Track their Kidnappings because there was No Database in place. “One senior CBP official who participated in Zero Tolerance Policy planning meetings stated that key stakeholders had pressured DHS to implement the policy in early May 2018 before identified deficiencies in [the database] were resolved,” the Report said.

But some of these Child-Snatchers are now Pointing Fingers, when they’re bothering to say anything at all. The IG said that Sessions Refused numerous times to be Interviewed and said the Office had No Power to Force him to Submit to an Interview because he’s a Former Official. The New Democratic Congress should look into that.

Gene Hamilton, a current DOJ Official said to blame Trump and Nielsen, Claiming the Decision to Implement Zero Tolerance “would be between Secretary Nielsen and the President, and not the Department of Justice.”

Following the Release of the Final Watchdog Report, Rosenstein issued a Statement claiming regret. "Since leaving the department, I have often asked myself what we should have done differently, and no issue has dominated my thinking more than the zero tolerance immigration policy,” he claimed. “It was a failed policy that never should have been proposed or implemented. I wish we all had done better."

There’s No way that Family Separation could have been “done better” because it Shouldn’t have been Done at All, and any Chance for the Administration to have shown Regret has long Passed. In just One example of how there’s truly No Remorse at all, the Administration withheld additional Contact Information that could Help Reunite Families that remain Separated, Disclosing it only last Month after New Attention was drawn to its Inhumane Policy.

The Trump Administration created this Policy, the Trump Administration Implemented this Policy, the Trump Administration led by White House Aide and noted White Supremacist, Stephen Miller, thought it was a Brilliant Policy, and the Trump Administration would have continued this Policy into even more Horrific Numbers if it had Not been for Universal Condemnation and a Federal Judge’s Order.

“The Inspector General's investigation makes it clearer than ever: Jeff Sessions, Rod Rosenstein and the Trump administration willfully disregarded the lives of innocent children in their xenophobic crusade to criminalize migrant families,” Sen. Ron Wyden (D-OR) said in a Statement. “The trauma of thousands of migrant kids is on their hands. Everyone involved in this cruel and ill-conceived policy must be held accountable. I am committed to working with my colleagues and the incoming Biden administration to repair the damage at our southern border and restore humanity to our immigration policy."

House Oversight and Judiciary Chairs also Issued a Statement following the Report’s release, saying: “[i]t is imperative that we rectify these grave injustices, including by facilitating the reunification of these families in the United States as soon as possible and protecting them from detention and deportation. It is the very least we can do.” Groups like the American Civil Liberties Union that have been Assisting in Reunification Efforts also Reiterated that Separated Families must be Put on a Path to Citizenship.

“This was one of the worst human rights atrocities in American history,” America’s Voice Executive Director, Frank Sharry, said. “The full power of the state, with the support of the president and the Cabinet, was deployed to rip thousands of kids from their parents to deter them from seeking safety and freedom as refugees in America.”

NYC Wins When Everyone Can Vote! Michael H. Drucker

Georgia's 159 Counties Certified Senate Runoff Results

Georgia's Two U.S. Senate Runoff Election rRsults have been Certified by All of the 159 Counties, bringing an End to an Election cycle that had all eyes on Georgia for months.

The last Update was Published on the Secretary of State's Office website just after 7 p.m. The Official Deadline for All Counties to Certify their Results was at 5 p.m. on Friday.

The State now has until Jan. 22nd to Certify the State Totals but Officials have said they hope this is Completed by Inauguration day.

The Final Counts from the Counties have Jon Ossoff (D) Winning over incumbent David Perdue (R) by 55,232 (50.61%) and the Rev. Raphael Warnock (D) Defeating Incumbent Kelly Loeffler (R) by 93,550 (51.04%).

In each case, the Winner of the Runoff Race won by a Margin that Avoided a Re-Count.

NYC Wins When Everyone Can Vote! Michael H. Drucker

Biden's Legislation for Legal Status for Immigrants

Biden plans to Send a Legislative Package to Congress to address the Goal of Immigration Reform, including a Pathway to Citizenship for an estimated 11 Million Immigrants who are in the County without Legal Status.

The Bill would provide a Shorter Pathway to Citizenship for:

- Temporary Protected Status (TPS) People from: Haiti, El Salvador, Syria, Nepal, Honduras, Yemen, Somalia, Sudan, Nicaragua and South Sudan.

- Beneficiaries of Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) who were brought to the U.S. as Children.

- Certain Front-Line Essential Workers, vast numbers of whom are Immigrants.

In a significant Departure from many previous Immigration Bills passed under both Democratic and Republican Administrations, the proposed Legislation would Not contain any Provisions directly linking an Expansion of Immigration with Stepped-Up Enforcement and Security Measures, said Marielena Hincapié, Executive Director of the National Immigration Law Center Immigrant Justice Fund, who has been Consulted on the Proposal by Biden Staffers.

Hincapié, who was Co-Chair of the Biden-Sanders Unity Task Force on Immigration, part of Biden's Outreach to his Top Primary Rival, Vermont Sen. Bernie Sanders, and his Progressive Base, said that Biden’s Decision to Not Prioritize additional Enforcement Measures was probably a Result of lessons learned from the Obama Administration’s Failed attempt to appease Republicans by backing Tighter Immigration Enforcement in hopes of gaining their Support for Immigration Relief.

Biden's Proposal lays out what would be the most Sweeping and Comprehensive Immigration Package since President Reagan's Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986, which Granted Legal Status to 3 Million People who were in the Country without Documentation.

Under Biden's Plan, Immigrants would become Eligible for Legal Permanent Residence after Five years and for U.S. Citizenship after an Additional Three years, a Faster Path to Citizenship than in previous Immigration Bills.

But even with Democrats holding the White House and slender Majorities in both Chambers of Congress, the Bill will probably face Months of Political Wrangling on Capitol Hill and Pushback from Conservative Voters and Immigration Hard-Liners.

Several Immigration Activists Praised the Reported Scope and Scale of the Bill and expressed Surprise at its Ambition. A Number of Legislators and Analysts had Predicted that the New Administration, at least in its First Months in Power, would be likely to pursue Immigration Measures that would stir the Least Controversy and could be Achieved by Executive Actions rather than Legislation.

Hincapié said Biden’s Team would be able to Bypass Legislation to quickly make a Number of Administrative Changes. She expects him to announce several Executive Actions that would:

- Expand DACA

- Overturn Trump's 2017 Travel Ban Targeting Muslim-Majority Countries

- Rescind Trump’s Public Charge Rule, which Allowed Authorities to Deny Green Cards to Immigrants who use, or whose U.S. Citizen Children use, Food Stamps or other Public Benefits.

If the Broader Bill were to die or take Too Long to Pass, there are Alternate Venues for Democratic Leadership to Legalize a Substantial Group of People, specifically the Estimated 5 Million Essential Workers now in the Country without Legal Status.

As part of COVID Relief, Biden and Democratic Leadership could decide to Include Measures offering Legal Status to Essential Workers via a Process known as Budget Reconciliation, and that would only need 51 Votes to Pass the Senate.

NYC Wins When Everyone Can Vote! Michael H. Drucker